Meursault 1er Cru"Château de Blagny"
- RegionCôte de Beaune
- AppellationMeursault Premier Cru
- Grape varietyChardonnay
- Average vine age 30 years
- SoilStony marl, jurassic limestone
- Average yield40 hl/ha
- HarvestHand picked
- Cellaring Potential6-8 years
- Serving temperature 12-14°
- Situated just south of Volnay and Pommard in the Côte de Beaune, Meursault is the most extensive southerly white wine commune of the Côte-d'Or. Surprisingly enough for an appellation of this quality, no Grand Cru exists, however the high quality of the 1er Cru more then compensates for this. An exclusive of Maison Louis Latour (monopole), the vineyards constituting the estate of the Château de Blagny are located high on the hillside overlooking Meursault and Puligny-Montrachet. Château de Blagny is the most important domaine in the commune.
- FermentationTraditional in oak barrels with complete malolactic fermentation
- Ageing8 to 10 months ageing in oak barrels, 35% new
- BarrelsLouis Latour cooperage, french oak, medium toasted
- Tasting NoteA clear coloured wine with light green reflections, the Meursault Blagny will dazzle you with its elegant buttery notes wonderfully balanced with an aroma of fresh hazelnuts. On the palate, this full-bodied wine has generous flavours of white fruits, finishing with complex flavours of citrus fruits. There is a great harmony between the aromas on the nose and the flavours in the palate. For maximum enjoyment, let this wine develop for at least two years before tasting.
- Food PairingRock lobster - salmon with sorrel sauce - pan-fried chanterelles - cheese
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2004 - Wine Enthusiast - November 2006 - 91/100
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2016 - James Suckling - February 2018 - 92/100This is an almost chewy white with dried apples and lemons, as well as some cream and pear character. Full-bodied and tight yet layered. A rich finish. Contrasty young white. Drink and enjoy.
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2016 - Jancis Robinson - January 2018 - 16/20
Slight nutty character with some saltiness adding a mineral dimension. Cooked lemon on the palate with a buttery note to finish. Drink 2018-2024
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2016 - Tim Atkin - January 2018 - 92/100
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2016 - Burgundy Report - Bill Nanson - December 2017Hmm a nice width - saline and interesting.
Again, far too cold - I have to hold it in the mouth some time - this has a
nice complexity, very Meursault, though I might have thought a little more
interest for a 1er Cru in 2016. But the finish is fine enough. A modest wine
Tasted on December 2017
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2016 - Inside Burgundy, Jasper Morris - January 2018 - 90/100
Fine pale colour. The bouquet is slightly nutty with some greener notes, a good weight of fruit on the palate, some tension, not too weighty. Still some heat at the back, but this will be a good, reliable Meursault. (tasted prior to bottling)
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2015 - Wine Enthusiast - November 2017 - 93/100
This structured wine is full of fruit and has a tight texture. It shows a creamy side from new wood, although this is well integrated into the fruity acidity and the mineral edge. (USA)
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2015 - Burghound.com - June 2017 - 89/100
(a Latour monopole) A ripe yet cool and airy nose offers up notes of green apple and citrus along with a wisp of lavender. The supple, round and nicely energetic flavors offer good minerality on the attractively textured and better balanced finish. This is really quite pretty and if it can develop better depth before it matures, my rating may be a bit too conservative. 89/2020+
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2015 - James Suckling - April 2017 - 92/100
This is firm and rich with lots of flint and stone character under the ripe fruit. Reserved style. Medium to full body. Give it time to open. Better in 2022.
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2015 - Jancis Robinson - January 2017 - 15.5/20
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2015 - Tim Atkin - January 2017 - 92/100
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2015 - Burgundy Report - December 2016 - "Very tasty"
Really a wide and attractive nose, very Meursault with a hint of spice. Silky, wide, fine concentration, intense too - here I would say with enough energy and certainly a very lovely mouth-watering finish. Tasty wine - very tasty! Bill Nanson (UK)
- Meursault Blagny Château de Blagny 2014 - Wine Spectator (USA) - December 2016 - 89/100
Citronella, lemon cake, spice and mineral aromas and flavors highlight this textural white. Packs more punch up front than on the moderately long finsih. - BS
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2014 - Wine Enthusiast - October 2016 - 92/100
From the highest point in the Meursault vineyards, this wine is crisp and cool. It has a tight, bright character that is driven by the steely, mineral texture. The grapefruit flavors go with the riper apple and pear roundness to give a wine that will take a little time to develop. Drink from 2018.
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2014 - Burghound.com - June 2016 - 91/100
There is a lovely texture to the notably rich and caressing medium weight flavors that exude a fine minerality that adds a certain lift to the delicious and seductively textured finale.
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2014 - Tim Atkin (UK) - February 2016 - 92/100
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2014 - Burgundy Report - January 2016 - "A rich wine"
A good deep Meursault nose with just a little added oak notes at the base. (...) Here is a really concentrated wine with waves of flavour and a very slowly mouth-watering finish. Just an impression of tannin too... A rich wine. (cask sample) By Bill Nanson (UK)
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2013 - Wine Enthusiast - October 2015 - 91/100While this wine has roundness and a ripe, rich character, it is also fresh, aromatic and cut with intense acidity. A touch of honey gives a softer, almost sweeter edge to this otherwise crisp wine. It is still bringing the fruit and the mineral texture together, so drink from 2018. (USA)
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2013 - James Suckling - June 2015 - 90/100A
dense and chewy white with sliced apple skin, lemon and mineral character. Full
body, lots of fruit and a long finish. A little rustic now.
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2013 - Burghound.com - June 2015 - 90/100(...) There is a lovely sense of energy to the delicious, detailed and mineral-inflected flavors that possess better phenolic ripeness before concluding in a lingering finish where a hint of bitter lemon surfaces. By Allen Meadows (USA)
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2013 - Tim Atkin - January 2015 - 91/100 (UK)
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2012 - Wine Spectator - August 2015 - 92/100Ripe and round, sporting vanilla, butterscotch, peach and melon aromas and flavors, with good underlying structure. The spice flavors echo on the finish. Open and accessible, but with the acidity for food. Drink now through 2024.
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2012 - Apstein on Wine - December 2014 - 92/100Louis Latour,
one of Burgundy's top-notch producers, hit a bull's eye with their 2012s.
The vintage produced concentrated wines and capturing acidity, especially for
the whites, was a challenge. Latour succeeded
brilliantly. This Meursault has a beautiful, yet not overripe, density
for a premier cru in 2012. Its concentration is buttressed by plenty
of racy minerality. With an exceptional finish, this refined wine, though
a joy to drink now, should evolve to give great enjoyment over a decade. Michael Apstein (USA)
- Meursault 1er "Château de Blagny" Cru 2012 - Burghound.com - June 2014 - 89/100(Cask sample) There is a trace of sulfur though I suspect that it will be completely integrated shortly and in any event is not sufficient to impede the appreciation of the cool and elegant white flower, citrus and apple-suffused nose. There is good verve and detail to the lightly mineral-inflected middle weight flavors that also display good length and balance. The complexity isn't at the same level as the rest of the wine but given that this will need a few years to reach its full majority there is a good chance that it will develop. 2018+. By Allen Meadows (USA)
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2012 - Burgundy Report - June 2014 - "Super"Cask sample. This nose is less forward than Pernand-Vergelesses 1er Cru "En Caradeux" 2012, but fresher and wider. In the mouth we have a lovely, growing, intensity of flavour - very impressive. Lovely intensity, yet balanced. Super. - Bill Nanson
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2012 - Jancis Robinson - January 2014 - 16.5/20Rich and salty nose. Dense and lip smacking. Very firm structure. Drink 2015-2020 (cask sample) UK
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2012 - Tim Atkin - February 2014 - 93/100 (UK)
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2011 - Wine Enthusiast - October 2014 - 93/100From the village of Blagny, considered part of Meursault, this full, rounded wine has a generous character, full of ripe fruit. It is given a crisper side by good acidity, and shows both freshness and weight at the end. Online Exclusive (USA)
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2011 - Wine Spectator - September 2014 - 89/100Broad in profile, this white sports a vivid structure and lemon and mineral flavors. Just a bit shy on length. Best from 2015 through 2022. (USA)
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2011 - Burghound.com - Allen Meadows (USA) - June 2013 - 91/100This is complex and elegant as well with its floral, citrus and dried herb suffused nose. There is a saline character to the punchy and well-detailed medium-bodied flavors that possess really lovely finishing depth as well as very good persistence. 2016+
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2011 - Jancis Robinson - February 2013 - 15.5/20 Drink 2014-2018.
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2010 - Decanter World Wine Awards 2016 - May 2016 - 92/100 - Silver Medal
A satisfying nose of ripe citrus fruits and hints of fresh flowers and herbs. Creamy and buttery palate underpinned by rich and piquant intense lime fruit with smoky oak and fine complex length. (UK)
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2010 - Wine Spectator Online - February 2013 - 89/100A vivid white, whose oily texture holds the apple, almond and baking spice flavors. Lean yet expressive, with a honey and spice finish. Drink now through 2018. By Bruce Sanderson, USA.
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2010 - Wine Enthusiast - November 2012 - 91/100 Big and fruity, this is very lively, balancing butteriness with green-fruit acidity. The wine is maturing quickly, its tension is fading into rich, wood-flavored fruitiness. By Roger Voss (USA).
- Meursault 1er Cru "Chateau de Blagny" 2010 - Burghound.com - June 2012 - 90/100An exceptionally fresh and elegant nose displays dried flowers, citrus and a hint of wet stone before sliding gracefully into detailed, racy and highly energetic flavors that offers the same minerality as suggested by the nose on the dry and moderately austere finish. An understated and attractively stylish effort. 2015+. By Allen Meadows (USA).
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2010 - Jancis Robinson - January 2012 - 17/20Apple sauce, cream, intense and really ripe on the palate with a touch of greengage fruit. Marked acidity too - full of character and vim. Large and lively. By Richard Hemming (UK).
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2009 - South China Morning Post - January 2013 - "Citrus and Mineral Notes"Citrus, mineral notes on the nose. Medium bodied, showing balanced acidity, with some phenolics giving a slightly bitter finish.
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny” 2009 - Wine Enthusiast - October 2011 - 90/100There is great richness here. The wine is ripe, concentrated with bright green fruits as well as a good mineral structure. (USA)
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2009 - Burghound.com - June 2011 - 90/100A relatively reserved nose featured notes of lemon rind, acacia blossom and a hint of wet stone that carries over to the rich and round yet nicely detailed and energetic flavors that possess good underlying tension on the attractively lemony finish. I like the balance and delivery as this is light on the palate but not banal. 2015+. By Allen Meadows (USA).
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2009 - The World of Fine Wine - March 2011 - 17/20Lustrous gold. On both nose and palate, minerality, precision, with a burgeoning richness. Plenty of substance, withal. Ageworthy. By Michael Edwards (UK).
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2009 - Chris Kissack (UK) - January 2011 - 16.5/20Much less expressive than the Puligny-Montrachet, this has more tightly reined-in stony fruits on the nose. Very pure, with an attractive definition to it, and a slightly cleaner style. There is fruit here, with a subtle and very primary tropical-stone-fruit style. Quite drily reserved on the palate, defined, grippy, with a nice seam of spicy midpalate acidity. Quite cool in terms of character, supple but well-framed, and a touch of polish here. Given time this will develop some really appealing features I think. A nice firm finish too.
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2009 - Jancis Robinson - January 2011 - 15.5/20Drink 2012-2016 : Monopole. Pale gold. More zest and savour on the nose of this than on the village Meursault. (UK)
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2009 - Blackpool Gazette - November 2012 - "Surprisingly delicate"Louis Latour strikes Burgundian gold with Meursault Premier Cru 2009 Chateau de Blagny, from winemakers in the business since 1797. Fine white Burgundy indeed...nutty almost toffee flavoured, toasted oak and mineral notes, offsetting the citrus butterscotch blast but the balance being surprisingly delicate. Good lasting finish too. By Jacqui Morley (UK).
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2008 - Wine Spectator Insider - September 2010 - 90/100Shows fine poise and balance, with lemon cake, apple and mineral flavors combining as this turns tight and stony on the finish. Ends with hints of butter and lemon. Best from 2011 through 2018. By Bruce Sanderson, USA.
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2008 - Allen Meadows' Burghound - July 2010 - 89-92/100The cool and restrained lemon zest, green apple and softly floral nose grudgingly emanates from the glass though the energetic, racy, pure and detailed flavors possess plenty of personality as well as a textured mouth feel, all wrapped in a lingering finish that exhibits both fine depth and balance. Lovely. (89-92)/2014+
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2007 - Jamie Goode's Wineanorak - April 2010 - 90/100Nice complexity: a bit mineral with some herby notes. Focused and fruity, this is subtle with real interest.
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2007 - Decanter Magazine - December 2009 - 3 starsHazelnuts, orange peel and white flowers. Balanced, structured, brilliant minerality. Multi-layered. Nice length. From 2011. (PM, UK).
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2007 - Burghound.com- July 2009- 91/100A very fresh and relatively high-toned nose of citrus blossom, lemon zest and roasted nut hints merge into detailed, intense and nicely complex middle weight flavors that possess a dry, persistent and exuberant finish that possesses ample nervosité (tension). 2012+. By Allen Meadows (USA).
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2006 - Wine Enthusiast - October 2008 - 92/100A powerful wine, layering richness, green plum freshness and toast with acidity and some concentrated vanilla ice cream and apple flavors. There's a touch of spice, too, to add an exotic note. (USA)
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2006 - Wine Spectator - June 24th, 2008 - 87-90/100Nice mineral streak in the refined Meursault-Blagny Château de Blagny. By Bruce Sanderson (USA).
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2006 - Burghound.com - July 2008 - 88-90/100A notably ripe yet very fresh nose of orange and lemon peel, apricot and peach notes leads to very rich, full and naturally sweet flavors that possess good buffering fat on the mouth coating finish that offers much better depth and length plus a firmer acid spine. 2010+. By Allen Meadows (USA).
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2006 - Jancis Robinson - February 2008 - 16.5/20Woody and tight but also cool and fresh. A baby with a spicy finish. (UK)
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2005 - Sunday Business Post - September 26th, 2010 - 89/100This premiere Cru produces a wine of subtle complexity, nuts, lime, oils, steely minerality and yields touches of brioche and a complex finish. A perfect partner for foie gras and brioche toasts.
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2005 - TheFineWineTimes.com - February 11th, 2010 - "Good concentration and excellent depth"Big buttery nose with creamy citrus aromas, earth, baked apple and a light nutty overlay of bottle age. Medium-bodied in the mouth but with good concentration and excellent depth of flavour. Minerally with integrated oak and high balanced acidity that leads to a good rich citrusy finish.
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2005 - Decanter - October 2008 - World Wine Awards - Commended
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2005 - International Wine Challenge UK - May 2008 - Commended
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2005 - Sommelier Wine Awards UK - May 2008 - Selected on the Sommelier's shortlist
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2005 - Wine Spectator - August 2007 - 90/100Full and rich, with apple, anise and mineral aromas and flavors. There's also a firm spine of acidity that keeps this focused and balanced. Ends with a mouthwatering impression. Best from 2008 throigh 2016. (USA)
- Meursault 1er "Château de Blagny" 2005 - Burghound.com - July 2007 - 90/100This is ultra pure and high-toned with stylish aromas of white flower, wet stone and ripe citrus where the latter element also adds punch and lift to the mineral-infused, racy and punchy flavors that possess real finishing verve. Good stuff fashioned in a lighter but focused style. By Allen Meadows (USA).
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2005 - Jancis Robinson - January 2007 - 16/20 Lemon fruit, nice and clean on the palate. Crystal clear fruit. (UK)
- 2004 Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" - Burghound.com - July 2006 - 89 points : The aromas are bright and very fresh with an airy, indeed almost perfumed character that gives way to intensely mineral flavors that deliver good detail and finish of finishing punch. This is a well focused and harmonious wine, the kind that is a pleasure to drink because the individual components are in synch. I would give this a few years in bottle first but it's approachable now if you like.
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2004 - Wine Enthusiast - November 2006 - 91/100Structure and flavor of fresh green fruits over generous portions of wood. (USA)
- 2004 Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" - Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - USA - October 23rd 2008:If you want a chardonnay, this is the time to indulge in what most consider the role model for all other chardonnays. 2004 was not a great vintage in Burgundy and I expected this wine to be flat; however, it is still lively and has good fruit and acid balance. Very round in the mouth with subtle butteryness that comes from a long aging in oak. The longer than usual bottle age also adds to the roundness.
- 2003 Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" - Wine Spectator - July 31st, 2006 - 88 points :Fresh and tasting of apple and mineral, this is attractive for its purity, despite the soft structure. It picks up a nutty note on the finish. Drink now through 2009.
- 2003 Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" - Vinavisen Magazine - February 2005 - 5 stars :A typical great wine of burgundy, where a delicious fleshiness and elegant dryness come together in perfect harmony. The taste has a hint of oak on the finish.
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2003 - Wine Advocate - April 29th, 2005 - 88/100The floral and mineral scents of this wine lead to an almost chunky personality. Broad, satin-textured, and light to medium-bodied, it has excellent depth of fruit and a suave finish. (USA)
- 2003 Meursault-Blagny “Chateau de Blagny” - Burghound.com - October 2005 - 90 points :This is easily the best of this group of Meursault 1ers with the freshest, brightest and most elegant aromas and flavors. The nose features anise and high-toned fruit with good richness and solid concentration to the medium full flavors that retain a lovely balance and a lovely mineral-infused finish. I quite like this. 90/2007+
- Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" 2002 - Tom Cannavan's wine-pages.com - August 2015 - 93/100
Beautifully creamy and hazelnut rich touches of custard and apricot and utterly charming. Powerful palate, great nutty concentration and a lovely shimmering length and freshness. Juicy and lemony, and though not enormously complex in the finish, utterly delightful. (UK)
- 2001 Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" - Irish Independent - April 27th, 2003 :The Meursault Château de Blagny 1er Cru is drinking superbly and is an easy approachable white with good balance and structure.
- 2001 Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" - Wine Spectator - January 2004 - 88 points :Lovely, pure, clean and seductive. Great fruit, and not overly oaked. This is a pleasure to drink, with plenty of lime, lemon, vanilla, nutmeg and pear character. Medium-bodied and balanced through the long finish. Drink now through 2010.
- 2001 Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" - Burghound.com - July 2003 - 87 points :While the nose is a definite step up in elegance and finesse with fine limestone and citrus aromas, the intense, precise flavors are a bit skinny and this aspect is accentuated by typical racy acidity of Blagny, which sits high on the hill. This is very pretty and if the flavors can add weight with time in the bottle, my score will be conservative.
- 2001 Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" - Wine Advocate - Issue 146 - 87-88 points : Light to medium-bodied, and revealing aromas of stones, gravel, minerals, and pears, the 2001 Meursault Blagny Château de Blagny displays appealing fat, a pure, well-delineated character, and a long finish. This fresh and lively wine is a candidate for drinking over the next 4 years.
- 2000 Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" - Wine Enthusiast - August 2002 - 89 points :In contrast to many of the other wines, this one starts off tight, with only faint lime and mineral notes on the nose. But it blossoms with air, stubbornly yielding up taut citrus flavors that flow over the palate with an almost gritty, powered-rock texture.
- 1999 Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" - La revue du Vin de France - February 2006 :A more golden robe. Bouquet with honey, waxy, smoky, mineral and dried fruit undertones, lessening. Exceptionally dense palate, vigorous, deep and mineral substance; spicy finale, firm with exquisite nervousness. One can still wait to enjoy this wine to its fullest.
- 1998 Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" - Sommelier India - May 2006 :A pale lemon colour and oily texture leading to a ripe citrus and crisp, zesty nose with hints of toast. A well defined and expansive palate, held back by high acidity and a mineral, almond finish.
- 1998 Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" - Wine Enthusiast Magazine - November 2000 - 88 points : Richly scented with citrus blossoms, mineral and spice. Nicely balanced and light, the flavors are layered and intermingled through an elegant, firm, satisfying finish.
- 1997 Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" - Hachette Wine Guide 2001 :A Meursault-Blagny, and the appellation deserves to be mentioned. It is not very common and commemorates teh Château de Blagny, the venerated estate run by Latour. The 97 is fresh and light, golden-straw in colour with notes of citrus fruits rounded off with a touch of menthol. It has a mineral edge that weighted the balance in its favour.
- 1997 Meursault 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" - The Times - December 2001 :A cut above straight meursault. Full of delicious sweet, nutty, marzipan-scented fruit with a fine, ripe, cheesy, nutty finish, this is aged for a year in oak barrels and can cope with more powerful festive fare. Match it to fish terrines served with herby sauces or gravadlax. Terrific value for money.
- 1996 Meursault 1er Cru 1er Cru "Château de Blagny" - Wine - July 2000 :Clean and fresh with medium body and length. Not overly oaky or fruity, well balanced.
- Meursault 1er Cru "Chateau de Blagny" 1995 - Wine Spectator - May 1997 - 90/100Extremely well made, and a good reflection of its minerally terroir. It's vibrant yet full-bodied, and firmly structured with subtle honey, fresh herbs, citrus and green apple flavors, well concentrated, with that mineral overtone. Hold until 2000 or so. 2,080 cases made.
- Meursault 1er Cru "Chateau de Blagny" 1990 - Wine Spectator - Oct 1993 - 88/100This is steely and fresh, with lovely apple, mineral and honey aromas and flavors; medium body and an exciting finish. Drinkable now. 4,000 cases made.